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1. Many factors cause firms to overbuild, resulting in industry overcapacity. The structural factor that may lead to overbuilding is:
A. A reduction in supplier prices.
B. A shallow learning curve.
C. An absence of exit barriers.
D. The presence of a strong market leader.
“Suppliers of capital, equipment, materials, etc., face their own competitive pressures. Thus, lower supplier prices, government subsidies, favorable interest rates, and similar incentives may promote expansion by customer industries.”
2. Which of the following actions can management take to build trust with groups?
A. Disclose information, emotions, and opinions.
B. Engaging in timely and accurate communication.
C. Showing respect to the group.
D. All of the answers are correct.
“The three factors that show that management desires to build a trusting relationship between the group and management.”
3. Which of the following is the best reason for considering the acquisition of a nondomestic organization?
A. Relatively fast market entry.
B. Improved cash flow of the acquiring organization.
C. Increased diversity of corporate culture.
D. Opportunity to influence local government policy.
4. The chief audit executive is attempting to standardize the engagement procedures used throughout the organization. Many of the internal auditors are employed at distant locations. The CAE wants to select a process that will encourage input from a cross-section of internal auditors, facilitate differing perspectives, and encourage acceptance of changes that might result from the standardization. The decision-making process that will most effectively achieve the CAE\’s goals are.
A. A decision-making model.
B. Group-aided decision-making.
C. The contingency approach.
D. Programmed decision making.
“The advantages of group decision making are that the group will have broader experience, greater expertise, a wider range of perspectives, and a greater capacity for absorbing facts than an individual. The exchange of viewpoints within the group may provide more illumination of the problem than could be achieved by one person. Group-aided decision-making facilitates analyzing problems and estimating needed actions. It encourages participation and acceptance of decisions.”
5. Which of the following is a strategy that organizations can use to stimulate innovation?
- Source from the most advanced suppliers.
- Establish employee programs that reward initiatives.
- Identify best practice competitors as motivators.
- Ensure that performance targets are always achieved.
A. 1 and 3 only
B. 2 and 4 only
C. 1, 2, and 3 only
D. 1, 2, 3, and 4
6. Which of the following management orientations is characterized by an organization\’s efforts to adapt the product and marketing program to each local environment?
“A polycentric attitude assumes that cultural differences require local managers to make most decisions because they are more knowledgeable about local conditions than are central administrators. Thus, the development of local managerial talent is crucial. Another result is that foreign operating performance is primarily evaluated based on results. As a consequence, methods, training, and incentives vary significantly among subsidiaries. Furthermore, control is predominantly local, the firm is identified with the nationality of the host nation, and relatively little communication occurs with central administration or among subsidiaries. One disadvantage is that local operations may have inefficiencies because of duplication of activities. Another disadvantage is the loss of goal congruence between local entities and the firm as a whole. Advantages are more capable and motivated local managers, better results in local markets, local development of new product ideas, and stronger support by host governments. Accordingly, the polycentric attitude adapts to each local environment.”
7. Which of the following is not a barrier to effective communication?
C. Similar frames of reference.
D. Lack of source credibility.
8. Gray market activity is in essence a form of arbitrage. To prevent this activity by their distributors, multinational firms:
I. Raise prices charged to lower-cost distributors.
II. Police the firms\’ distributors.
Change the product.
A. I only.
B. I and II only.
C. II and Ill only.
D. I, II, and Ill.
“In a gray market, products imported from one country to another are sold by persons trying to make a profit from the difference in retail prices between the two countries. These activities clearly lower the profits in some markets of the multinational firm that was the initial seller. One response is to monitor the practices of distributors and retaliate if necessary. A second response is to charge higher prices to the low-cost distributors to reduce their incentives to participate in a gray market. A third response is to differentiate products sold in different countries, e.g., by adapting the product or offering distinct service features.”
9. Which of the following best describes a transformational leader, as opposed to a transactional leader?
A. The leader searches for deviations from the rules and standards and intervenes when deviations exist.
B. The leader intervenes only when performance standards are not met.
C. The leader intervenes to communicate high expectations.
D. The leader does not intervene to promote problem-solving.
10. Both Maslow and Herzberg have developed popular motivational theories. Which statement best distinguishes Herzberg\’s theory?
A. Job performance improves as job satisfaction increases.
B. Job performance improves as physiological needs are met.
C. Job esteem improves as physiological needs are met.
D. Job esteem improves as job satisfaction increases.
“Frederick Herzberg\’s two-factor theory of human behavior postulates that there are two classes of factors in the job situation. Maintenance or hygiene factors are those whose presence will not especially motivate people but whose absence will diminish performance. These factors are extrinsic to the work itself. They include supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, salary, and status. Motivational factors are those the absence of which will not diminish performance but the addition or availability of which will motivate employees. Intrinsic to the work itself, these include achievement, recognition, challenging work, advancement, growth in the job, and responsibility.”
11. An employee\’s mobile device used for work was stolen in a home burglary.
Which control, if already implemented by the organization, would best prevent unauthorized access to organizational data stored on the employee\’s device?
A. Access control via biometric authentication.
B. Access control via passcode authentication.
C. Access control via swipe pattern authentication.
D. Access control via security question authentication.
12. The belief that successful leadership occurs when the leader\’s style matches the situation is the basis for:
A. The contingency approach to leadership.
B. The managerial-grid model of leadership.
C. A behavioral approach to leadership.
D. An achievement-oriented approach to leadership theories.
“According to Fred E. Fiedler\’s contingency theory, people become leaders not only because of personality attributes but also because of various situational factors and the interaction between the leaders and the situation. Thus, the right person at the right time may rise to a position of leadership if his/her personality and the needs of the situation complement each other. The same person might not become a leader in different circumstances because of failure to interact successfully with that situation. The contingency theory model has three dimensions.
(1) Position power is a function of the formal authority structure. It is the degree to which the position held enables a leader to evaluate, reward, sanction, or promote the group members independent of other sources of power, such as personality or expertise.
(2) Task structure is how clearly and carefully members\’ responsibilities for various tasks are defined. Quality of performance is more easily controlled when tasks are clearly defined.
(3) Leadermember relations reflect the extent to which group members like, trust, and are willing to follow a leader.”
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